Web 2.0 Glossary

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AJAX : Asynchronous JavaScript and XML
a web development technique for creating interactive web applications. The intent is to shift a great deal of computation to the web surfer’s computer, so the entire web page does not have to reload when a change is made due to user interaction. This is meant to increase the web page’s interactivity, speed, and usability. The Ajax technique uses a combination of : XHTML, CSS, Document Object Model (DOM) manipulated through JavaScript to dynamically display and interact with the information presented, the XMLHttpRequest object to exchange data asynchronously with the web server. XML is commonly used as the format for transfering data, although any format will work, including preformatted HTML, plain text, JSON and even EBML. – wikipedia

API : Application Programming Interface
interface that a computer system or application provides in order to allow requests for service to be made of it by other computer programs, and/or to allow data to be exchanged between them. XML APIs are the roots of the “programmable web” / “web as a platform”. – wikipedia

a website in which journal entries are posted on a regular basis and displayed in reverse chronological order. The term blog is a shortened form of weblog or web log. Individual articles on a blog are called “blog posts,” “posts” or “entries”. A person who posts these entries is called a “blogger”. – wikipedia

a collection of links to other weblogs. With the advent of syndicated newsfeeds, even blogrolls can be, and are being, syndicated. OPML is one of the popular ways to syndicate a blogroll in case a weblog author wants others to be able to access the weblogs in his/her blogroll. – wikipedia

The virtual brain of humanity. – more

a portmanteau word combining “folk” and “taxonomy,” refers to the collaborative but unsophisticated way in which information is being categorized on the web. Instead of using a centralized form of classification, users are encouraged to assign freely chosen keywords (called tags) to pieces of information or data, a process known as tagging. Examples of web services that use tagging include : Flicrk, del.icio.us, etc. – wikipedia

The combination of globalisation and localisation. – more

Mashup (mash-up)
a website or web application that seamlessly combines content from more than one source into an integrated experience. Content used in mashups is typically sourced from a third party via a public interface or API. Other methods of sourcing content for mashups include Web feeds (e.g. RSS or Atom) and JavaScript includes. – wikipedia

Technorati, CommerceNet, and others that are intended to give meaning to content on the Internet. They are built on XHTML, where possible reusing existing semantic elements, and adding new meaning via a system of “class”, “rel”, or “rev” attributes. For example, the “rel” attribute in hyperlinks can store additional information about the nature of the links. The first microformat, XHTML Friends Network (XFN), uses the “rel” attribute to allow web authors to identify their relationship to people they link from their websites. The “class” attribute, being multivalued, can be used to indicate the semantic content of a contained element without necessarily affecting presentation. – wikipedia

OPML : Outline Processor Markup Language
is an XML format for outlines. Originally developed by Radio UserLand as a native file format for an outliner application, it has since been adopted for other uses, the most common being to exchange lists of RSS feeds between RSS aggregators. The OPML specification defines an outline as a hierarchical, ordered list of arbitrary elements. The specification is fairly open which makes it suitable for many types of list data : Play list, Directory, etc. – wikipedia

the URL of the full, individual article, designed to refer to a specific information item (often a news story or blog item) and to remain unchanged permanently, or at least for a lengthy period of time to prevent link rot. – wikipedia

Programmable web
Also known as “web as a platform”. – more on programmableweb.com

Read/Write web
A web where people are able to publish add / modify content of a web page without any programmer skills. – see : Wiki

RSS : Really Simple Syndication
a family of XML dialects for Web syndication used by (among other things) news websites and weblogs. The abbreviation is used to refer to the following standards : Rich Site Summary (RSS 0.91), RDF Site Summary (RSS 0.9 and 1.0), Really Simple Syndication (RSS 2.0.0). The RSS formats provide web content or summaries of web content together with links to the full versions of the content, and other meta-data. This information is delivered as an XML file called an RSS feed, webfeed, RSS stream, or RSS channel. In addition to facilitating syndication, RSS allows a website’s frequent readers to track updates on the site using an aggregator. RSS is one of the most important technology of Web 2.0. – wikipedia

Social web
refers to an open global distributed data sharing network similar to today’s World Wide Web, except instead of linking documents, the Social Web will link people, organizations, and concepts. The term was introduced in a July 2004 paper called “The Social Web: Building an Open Social Network with XDI” published in the PlaNetwork Journal by members of the OASIS XDI Technical Committee. This paper owes much to the Augmented Social Network paper published for the PlaNetwork conference the previous year. – wikipedia

SSE : Simple Sharing Extensions (SSE)
is a specification that extends RSS from unidirectional to bidirectional information flows. SSE defines the minimum extensions necessary to enable loosely cooperating applications to use RSS as the basis for item sharing—that is, the bidirectional, asynchronous replication of new and changed items among two or more cross-subscribed feeds. SSE can also be used to extend other formats such as OPML. SSE introduces concepts such as per-item change history (to manage item versions and update conflicts) and tombstones (to propagate deletions, and un-deletions). – more on Microsoft web site

Tags are the keywords people add to articles in their blog or to web pages via social bookmarking tools like del.icio.us, Technorati, Yahoo ! My Web 2.0, etc. – wikipedia

Tag Cloud
more traditionally known as a weighted list in the field of visual design, a tag cloud is a visual depiction of content tags used on a website. Often, more frequently used tags are depicted in a larger font or otherwise emphasized, while the displayed order is generally alphabetical. Thus both finding a tag by alphabet and by popularity is possible. Selecting a single tag within a tag cloud will generally lead to a collection of items that are associated with that tag. The first tag cloud appeared on Flickr, the photo sharing site. That implementation was based on Jim Flanagan’s Search Referral Zeitgeist, a visualization of web site referrers. Tag clouds have also been popularised by Technorati, among others. – wikipedia

links back from other sites. This mechanism is used in a blog to show, around an entry, a list of other blogs that refer to it. – wikipedia

Web as a platform
– see : progammable web

a type of website that allows users to easily add and edit content and is especially suited for collaborative writing. Wikis initiate the “read / write web” – wikipedia

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